3D Printing: What materials to use and where to buy them

After several weeks in which we have given a review to all that implies 3D printing, we wanted to finish this series of special articles with a more practical, in which we are going to talk about the different materials available in the market to print and , Most importantly, where we can get them, their prices and their qualities, with a series of tests and measurements on them.

Setting test parameters

In order to carry out these tests, we have been in contact with several stores, and we have made measurements and impressions on the same products that they put on sale, so we can tell you first hand our experiences, both with the materials and with the Shops.

But the first thing that we are going to do is to establish the test parameters that we are going to realize. The first are the tools that we will use. In this case we will serve a foot of digital king for measurement of dimensions, a multimeter for conductivity and Mendel Tricolor RepRapPro printer to make the impressions .

Although with the filament normally can also perform tests of mechanical strength, these properties are given primarily by their composition, something that in most cases hardly varies. We are going to focus on its dimensions, of which basically at the time of printing we import two, the diameter and the roundness. Although for all practical purposes, the most important parameters to consider are the degree of variability of diameter and self – calibration of the printer , so that when we send commands extrusion material, the material coming out of the hot head is really the That we mark.

This is important because a great variability can not only create distortions and errors in the printed piece, but also serious problems with the 3D printer , such as jams head, cable that is split in the middle of printing, and a host of ” Horrors “that can cause from small inconveniences to catastrophic situations. Therefore we will make a series of measurements along the filament samples, we will obtain the average, standard deviation and final tolerances.

In addition to the filament itself, it is also important the coil in which it is coiled and as it is, as well as the packaging and sealing thereof. We will also check if there are storage defects, such as blows, excessive exposure to UV rays and if really, the amount of filaments that claim to have coils corresponds to reality.

Finally, we will perform several tests of printing, including one in which we will print the same piece with the different materials following their recommended temperature values. To do this, we will look for a 3D model of a piece in an open parts library and print it With all of them with the Mendel Tricolor, a printer also of open design, showing that the open solutions are as good as the proprietors.

In this case the chosen piece was a gear belonging to this part . The decision to take this piece is due to the fact that there are curves, roundings, straight lines, a small hole and a large hole, as well as a hole for a hexagonal nut, a gear and a separate edge of the central body. It is a perfect piece to check the different problems that can arise in 3D printing: warping, deformations, inconsistent and moving layers, deformed curves and lines, variation in dimensions, etc …

The different thermoplastic filaments

Explained already what we are going to do, we will speak to you very briefly of each of the types of filaments that we have taken into account and their properties. There is a great variety, although the market of the thermoplastic filament is in continuous development and new materials arise continuously.

ABS : Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene is the one of most thermoplastics used in 3D printing. It is not biodegradable, but is very tenacious, hard and rigid, with chemical resistance and abrasion, but suffers with exposure to UV rays. It is soluble in acetone and its density is 1.05 g / cm 3 . Requires a head temperature of about 240 ° C and tray of 110 ° C. For you to imagine, LEGO pieces are made of ABS.

PLA : polylactic acid filaments is another star of 3D printing. It is biodegradable and is usually obtained from corn starch, so that when smelling it smells almost to food and can be used for food containers. The texture of the pieces is not as soft as with ABS, but they are brighter and the corners come out better. Its density is between 1.2 and 1.4 g / cm 3 . The temperature required for printing is about 210 ° C with the bed at about 60 ° C.

In both cases we can find, in PLA as in ABS, all kinds of colors, ranging from natural crude, to golden and silver. But there are also varieties of these materials with special properties. We have for instance fluorescent colors that glow in the dark, or fluorescent glow when exposed to UV light. Also materials that change color according to temperature and to flexible varieties or conduct electricity.

HIPS : high impact polystyrene is very similar to ABS material and requiring the same temperature profiles. It is usually used in combination with ABS to make pieces with hollow spaces, using HIPS as a support that will then be removed with D-Limonene, with which it is soluble while acetone does not affect it. As the ABS supports bad UV light and its density is 1.04 g / cm 3 . We have used the same temperatures as with ABS.

PET : polyethylene terephthalate is one of the most used for bottles and other packaging materials. Its main property is its crystallization capacity, generating transparent parts with surprising effects. It is very strong and resistant to impacts. Its crystal density is 1.45 g / cm 3 . We have used the same temperatures as with the PLA.

Laywoo-d3 material which requires conditions similar to those of the PLA temperature, with the peculiarity that if we increase or decrease a few degrees, the color obtained is darker or lighter. After cooling, it has a wood-like texture and temperature variations, whether controlled directly, by fluctuations or type of cooling, will leave streaks more or less dark.

Ninjaflex: This is a revolutionary thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) for creating pieces with surprising flexibility. In itself, the filament has practically the consistency of a rubber cord, and the resulting parts can be deformed widely. The temperature is very similar to that of the PLA, with the head at 215ºC and the tray at 40ºC.

Nylon: Nylon is perhaps one of the most complex 3D printing materials. Its main problem is the lack of adhesion of the piece to the tray, which causes many failures besides a warping very difficult to control. In addition, it usually picks up moisture easily, so prior to 3D printing we must dry it in the oven for 3 or 4 hours. In exchange for all these difficulties, nylon is a very resistant material, little viscous, very resistant to the temperature and with different varieties that give him flexibility, transparency and other qualities.

We have found 9 types of different coils , which also appear in the table and all sorts of dimensions, so if your printer uses a special holder for coils or do you use your own yours, and requerís that the coil does not exceed a size Determined, you should take into account the types of reels that stores use to know if they will be compatible. In all cases the coils were in perfect condition and the amount of filament was adequate, but still we recommend that if you think to make a large order of many reels, always ask for a sample to know if it meets what you need.

After the measurements, we made the pieces, verifying that, although in some cases the variations and average value of the filament diameter are different from the nominal ones, with values that could theoretically offer problems when printing, with the appropriate calibration all this Is minimized and makes practically every type of filament. We have used, as we said before, a 3D Mendel Tricolor printer from RepRapPro and Cura software. The layer height has been 0.3 mm, the wall thickness of 1 mm and the bottom and top layers 0.6 mm with a density of 20%. The printing speed was 40 mm / s and that of the movements of 120 mm / s.

We successfully made pieces in all materials, and for this we tried different combinations of support surfaces, either with bare glass, Kapton tape, body tape, cardboard and use of lacquer. The best result obtained with PLA as Kapton, while with ABS was with lacquer (provided by Thingibox and following his advice) greatly facilitating printing. The only materials that was impossible to print the nylons were both Taulman as Chinese, we did not get that any material or temperature will stick.

In the gallery you have the pieces in the different materials, including samples of the thermochromic properties, phosphorescent and fluorescent, in that last case it must be said that red is the least noticeable. About Laywoo-D3 must say that its texture is quite surprising, besides the property of letting different shades according to the extrusion temperature , and the piece in transparent PET looks spectacular.

As for the materials with the most useful properties, the conductive ABS, but can not be used to print circuits has many uses for sensors, shields, etc … Of course, its resistance changes greatly with temperature and in our case, at 17 ° C environmental, we obtained values of resistance of 15,550 +/- 943 ohms / cm away from the 10,000 nominal. This value was obtained by making measurements in different sections with the same environmental conditions. To check the variation with temperature, we measured a sample of 10 cm at different temperatures, and then obtained the corresponding formula by a linear regression of these values, which gave us the formula R = 470 · T + 8.266 where the temperature (T) In ºC.

Special mention has the two flexible materials we have tested, the EcoFlex Flex of FormFutura and the NinjaFlex. The price is very similar, 34.95 € / 0.5kg the first against 36.95 € / 0.5kg the second, but the elastic properties of NinjaFlex are much greater , so much that it surprised. In addition we have verified that with both can be made to perfection “complicated” pieces like bellows with option of Z in spiral and walls of 0.5 mm of thickness.

Once you know an important variety of materials at our disposal, it is time to know where we can get them. We will point you to 4 Spanish stores, with the huge advantage of lower shipping costs and faster delivery time, and then some international stores with unusual materials.

Medication Rehabilitation Facility – Beneficial and also Marvelous Therapy Programs

Currently, Medicine addiction is treatable condition. Nevertheless, it makes physiological and mental dependences. It is specific about drug user to break away from the dependence. Medicine addiction takes a lot of work. It can be hard. In some cases it has a painful process but it holds true that the appropriate treatment can bring happiness for many people. It is guessed that approximately numerous people in different parts of the globe reveal numerous sorts of signs and symptoms of medication addiction. Drug Rehab Center prepares to assist numerous clients effectively overcome the dependence.

This is essential time to defeat a drug addiction. The drug addict need to obtain aid from a dependable recovery facility in their region. It is challenging to get eliminate medicine dependency. That’s why a number of your good friends, loved ones along with the wellness specialists in rehab facility will certainly assist and also enable to understand the primary origin of the. At Medicine Rehabilitation Facility the specialists will take care as well as help the individual acknowledge their substance abuse has left the their control.

Drug Rehabilitation facilities have different kinds of joyous therapy programs for patients. The programs can aid to reduce the dependancy of a person. A number of therapy programs could aid to obtain rid of the dependency as well as treat the troubles. If somebody is having problem with alcohol and drug, they need to help as well as go for alcohol rehab treatment that could conserve your life and your loved one life. This bright idea can bring happiness in your entire household. When you are searching for Drug and Alcohol therapy Centers in your city, it is not a big trouble. This is simple to figure out a dependable alcohol recovery facility for you as well as your loved ones. There countless rehab centers that offer you pleasurable therapy programs in your area. Alcohol and drug treatment Centers provides numerous people on medication which want treatment.

A variety of medicine rehab centers are catering as well as using trustworthy therapy programs in nook or corner of the globe. This is a great wish for addicts. Lucrative programs have actually come to be a type of remarkable tendency for all rehabilitation facilities in this area. However they have various missions in various parts of the cities. The facilities take care and assist the addicts to live a regular life. They have numerous strategies and also make use their attempt to assist addicts. Alcohol drug rehabilitation provides therapy, mentoring as well as medication.

Drug Alcohol California, it is challenging to find out the best drug rehab center. You can do the first thing speak to a rehabilitation facility specialist and center department by mobile phone or using e-mail. You have to recognize and also collect even more details about the center in your location. Bear in mind! Constantly select the very best reliable medication rehabilitation for you or your loved one. Drug and Alcohol therapy Centers announces property treatment programs. In this center people can obtain rigorous treatment programs including academic groups, treatment planning, team treatment, specific treatment, regression avoidance groups, psycho-education teams, as well as details components. The programs customized each specific people based upon their requirements.

Considering a Tattoo? Attempt a Phony Tattoo Sleeve

Are you taking into consideration getting a tattoo? It’s a big choice to put a permanent illustration on your body. Getting rid of a long-term tattoo will be tough, expensive, and also unpleasant if at some time you determine you not desire it. At a long time in your life you might not enjoy with the irreversible tattoo’s you selected in the past, so why not take the practical safety measure and also try a Counterfeit Tattoo Sleeve prior to dedicating to a long-term design. With a momentary tatt sleeve you do not need to fret about unsanitary devices or infections. Best of all there is no piercing of the skin included. The most beneficial aspect of Fake Tattoo sleeves is that they are in certainly short-lived.

Popular Tattoo designs adjustment fairly commonly. Right now fashionable designs include numerous layouts with Asian themes, in addition to Heads, Dragons, Butterflies and also Flowers. Tribal styles are likewise incredibly popular. If you are not absolutely sure concerning a style style, then why not put on a Counterfeit Tattoo Sleeve? If you still like the layout after a time period then you could wage an irreversible tattoo with the self-confidence that it was the best option for you.

Probably you want a tattoo for momentary decoration. Fake Tattoo Sleeves have actually become preferred amongst those going to celebrations and those going clubbing. These tattoos are much less costly than a permanent style and also less hassle compared to tattoo stickers. Air brushed tattoos are expensive and not every person could apply them well.

To stay clear of all these problems why pass by a brand-new as well as stylish Phony Tattoo Sleeve? Not just are they discovered at practical rates but the option is substantial. You will definitely have no problem finding a layout that fits your character as well as objective. All that is called for is to slip the sleeve stocking over your arm and away you go. It takes a few seconds to readjust and also align your sleeve then you prepare to display your new body art cost to remove permanent tattoo. If there is a seam at the wrist it can be concealed under a watch or wrist band if you desire. Other than that, you are ready to head out and also show your new tattoo for everyone to see. The sleeves are constructed from a breathable, comfy material as well as you will find they could even be washed.

If you choose to buy a Fake Tattoo Sleeve you will no doubt be really happy with your choice. Not just are they low-cost to acquire yet they can be found in a significant variety of layouts and also styles. It will not take you long to find the excellent design to match your character as well as sense of style. As it is an enjoyable method to share your originality.

How you can Develop Great Web Design

There are many different types of website design, from those constructed making use of internet site design templates and ‘construct your own’ site structure applications to complex content took care of and also e-commerce web designs such as those utilized by big brand names like Amazon, ebay.com and Tesco. Some companies, also some big name firms, have amateur looking and badly made sites. Some have incredible looking internet sites but because of their high graphical content and minimal text web content can take an age to tons, are not easy to use as well as do not give what the site visitor desires.

Good Site Style

Though numerous elements of site layout differ from site to website, lots of things remain the very same throughout most of sites on the internet. Most especially is the navigating or menu. The way in which an internet site’s menu jobs as well as looks is crucial, as ultimately, visitors to an internet site are looking for certain criteria that will make them either keep as well as connect or leave. This capability for a web site to keep site visitors interested is in some cases described as dampness. Site visitors desire an appealing visually amazing experience, however maybe more significantly, they want ‘ease of use’. Website use is a key element for internet sites that desire their visitors to stick around, make an enquiry and also ultimately finish a deal as well as order a product or service.

Easy to Use Website design

Net individuals have the tendency to like easy to use sites, since they do not want to have to learn ways to make use of a site every time they find a new one. They ought to have the ability to utilize a web site after just a couple of seconds of checking out a homepage, any more as well as they will certainly leave and surf elsewhere. The requirement for fast customer communication is crucial and therefore having a rapid loading web site is also essential for a website to do well. Even with faster internet links such as broadband, web customers don’t wish to wait around.

Simply picture, if you most likely to a store on the high road and also are completely neglected by store assistants at the counter for 5 minutes, after you have made it clear you desire assistance. There is a connection below to exactly how an internet user could feel, when they get to a website that has actually been improperly developed, is challenging to make use of, hostile as well as sluggish to load. Making sure that a website has actually been well thought out as well as developed with the user in mind, presents a business’s unique marketing points within conveniently identifiable eye catching calls for activity as well as has a clear, easy to use menu is vital to its success.

Flash Web Design

With recent website design improvements, such as the intro of Flash computer animation as well as high definition video web content, outstanding sites have actually been created to make use of much higher levels of aesthetic impacts as well as interaction. However with this ‘high-end’ web design, comes a cost, most of the time, website design which depend heavily upon Flash web content are typically ridiculously sluggish to load. They usually have a progress bar, which slowly goes across the web internet browser to represent when the internet site will finish loading.

This is just like the development bars that you might know with if you use video clip editing and enhancing or 3D rendering software application, or if you use video games gaming consoles where they are displayed whilst you wait on games to load. Internet individuals on the whole do not intend to wait 3 – 5 mins for a web page to fill even if it does feature high resolution images, animation or video clip. They want quickly informative material abundant internet sites. If they intended to view a computer animation or video clip they would watch TV.

Excellent Flash Website design

This is not to say that Flash computer animation is all problem as well as should not be utilized in web design. If used subtly and also in small amounts it can make a website much more visually appealing without slowing the lots time down too much. Suitable uses for Flash computer animation in website design are things such as; Flash banner ads, Flash video clip and also interactive Flash kinds for online questionnaires or service presentations.

Utilizing Flash for a whole site layout however, is not such a great idea. It reduces the individual’s experience down because they need to await aspects of it to lots. Also, websites entirely created in Flash tend to use unfamiliar menu structures and functions. This could confuse visitors who simply intend to quickly interact with the website and also not be amazed by the way the food selection animates. Even if you can do these points in Flash, it does not indicate they have any type of actual functioning value in the real life. They might look very, yet if they are not practical and also just aggravate the visitor after that they have no real worth.

Flash Website design & SEO

Another debate versus making use of Flash to create a whole web site is that it dramatically reduces the efficiency of your websites’ Online search engine Optimisation. Blink web designs are comprised of one major documents within a web page which internet search engine discover hard to index. This is since the text within them is usually visual message and also as a result is not typically accessible by internet search engine. Some recent growths permit some text to be presented for online search engine in Flash web sites, yet this is nowhere near as reliable as message material within typical HTML based internet sites.

Don’t Cross out Flash in Website design

Although Flash does have its limitations it also has its good points if used appropriately. For example; Flash animation is typically smaller in documents size than traditional gif animation and also as a result of the way it is made the animation moves smoother compared to gif computer animation also. Having said this, I would certainly suggest only utilizing Flash in small locations within a website to praise various other imagery that makes up the total layout. Discovering a balance between very little graphical aspects, images, Flash as well as top quality interesting text is the vital to an effective user friendly web site. This isn’t really to say that website design needs be uninteresting. By working with top quality web design firms there’s no reason that you couldn’t have an aesthetically amazing, well designed, easy to use as well as effective site.

Aesthetically Promoting Website design

When visitors first get to a site, they intend to be impressed as well as involved with just what the site has to use. This will be identified by the ways where the web developer has actually laid out the website’s material text, photos as well as features. Organizing aspects such as images, text, graphics, flash and also video clip in such a way as to maintain the visitor thinking about the web site is the vital to great web design. If a site has bad layout and also doesn’t get the interest of the visitor in the initial few seconds, then it could well be rejected as simply another ordinary website. This eventually indicates the visitor will go elsewhere to spend their time and, a lot more notably, loan.

Great Web Design Design

A great deal of time and money is spent making certain that the right aspects of websites are positioned in the best locations. Business spend large amounts of money carrying out research into just how internet customers use their sites. This sort of study programs where their site visitors’ eyes focus one of the most, which elements of the website they click first and generally just how they interact and also utilize their sites. Most internet customers will look mainly from the top left either across the web page, or down the left hand side of the website with a net web browser via a computer, mobile phone or TV set.

I would certainly predict, that they are trying to find the business’s name or logo, their primary selling points or mottos and after that exactly what the site has to offer in terms of just what is featured in the food selection. After which their eyes are possibly attracted throughout the page content and also over to the right hand side. Effective web design normally takes this right into factor to consider as well as will inevitably impact the way a website looks.

There are naturally instead popular exemptions to this guideline for instance one rather well well-known online search engine has a web design which is fairly different. The major focus and core performance in their web design is located right in the centre of the web page portsmouth web design agency. This however, isn’t really any type of normal site with tens or even thousands of pages of services and products to display, its main focus is its recognisable logo design and also of course its search box. It does however showcase a little minimal food selection throughout the top of the website design, which moves from entrusted to right. So even they have taken onboard some of the study undertaken right into internet customers’ behaviors. If you go checking out websites after reading this short article, I could guarantee that the majority of the web designs you’ll see, will have a left hand food selection as well as a defined header bar with a firm logo design and motto across it.